Gorse (Ulex europaeus)
The common gorse is very thorny and not a plant some beekeepers would want to plant in the garden. Can be used for hedging, screens or as a single shrub in the border. Gorse tends to be in flower for most months of the year and is at its best around March/April where it is a good source of pollen for bees, helping colonies build up in spring. Gorse is drought resistant, grows in poor sandy soils and has the ability to fix nitrogen in the soil. It can be seen on many heathland areas where it can become invasive. If grown in rich soils it can become leggy and will need regular pruning to keep it compact.
It also provides protection, a good nesting habitat and safe haven for breeding small birds.
Other plants still providing some forage for bees if the January weather is favourable are, Mahonia, and some varieties of Viburnum.
Viburnum x bodnantense
Several related species of Viburnum are of value to bees for pollen on warm fine winter days. Frost resistant strong growing shrub with fragrant pink flowers appearing from late November to March.
Mahonia, Oregon Grape (Mahonia Aquifolium)
Mahonia is an evergreen shrub with holly like leaves that produces yellow racemes of fragrant flowers from November to March. Several species and varieties are available and in warm weather bees will work the flowers for nectar and pollen.
Large overgrown specimens can be cut back in early spring after flowering and will produce new growth that will flower the following autumn/winter.
Ivy (Hedera helix)
Ivy is an important source of nectar and pollen to honeybees at this time of year. Flowering late September to November and if warm enough flowers may still be found until late on in the year for bees to forage on. Pollen is consumed by workers in the autumn to enlarge the hypopharyngeal glands and fat bodies, allowing longer life of the winter bee.
Research has shown that honeybees going into winter with low levels of protein in their fat bodies have :
- Shorter lives.
- Are susceptible to Nosema and EFB.
- Don’t winter well and the colony is likely to suffer from spring dwindling as nurse bees require protein to produce brood food.
by Stuart Hatton